Hatena::Groupbqa

Before QWERTY and After

QLOOKアクセス解析

2014-04-09

どのように乱数で計算したか、、その研究ノートの断片がみつかった。

06:15

どのように導出したかの経過のメモの一部へ 外部からのアクセスが4pvあった。おかげで 研究ノートの断片がみつかった。

Excel2003の擬似乱数で計算していたのだが、これを "R" のメルセンヌ乱数だかで 計算しなおそうかと思う。

また、Sean Lukeのdigraphリストからでなく、彼のLispを参考に 自前でBrownCorpusから抽出して 考慮すべきdigraphの組み合わせを 網羅してみたいと思う。

2014-03-30

masudako「M. & K. Yasuokaはこの説を否定する判断をしている。たとえばEとRは続いて現われやすいが反対側に置かれてはいないのだ。」に関して。

06:09

    Yasuoka & Yasuokaはこの説を否定する判断をしている。たとえばEとRは続いて現われやすいが反対側に置かれてはいないのだ。

    2013-10-20 by masudako QWERTY (2) - macroscope

本件も 判断の分かれやすいところか。 セールスをプロモートする側からすれば 食指の動くところ?

設計および改良の主体がSholesの手にあった1873年2月までの時期には "R"は下段に留まっていた可能性が高い。"R"が上段に移動したのは 設計主体がRemingtonの技師 主にJenneに移った1873年3月以降のことである。

M. & K. Yasuokaは、このあたりの経緯を重々承知の 説法する釈迦の側である。だがここから先で やや 判断はわかれてくる。タイプバスケット上のタイプバーの並び順と鍵盤のキー配列には 自由度があり云々

Sholesの「Type-Writer」においては、キー配列と活字バーの配置との間に自由度があるため、活字バーの配置だけを変えることができる。

yasuokaの日記: デザイン学者の書くQWERTY配列

日記 by yasuoka 2007年05月06日

デザイン学者の書くQWERTY配列 | yasuokaの日記 | スラド

Patent Drawingそして ディッカーソンの規則性を考慮すれば Rは Eの向かい側あたりのタイプバスケット上にあったのかもしれない。

      • Dickersonの規則性は 後のショールズ1881年申請特許US558428にも描かれてある関係性である。

そこで David(1985)などでは このRの移動を Sholesのこの時点までの本意ではなく 別の理由をかんぐる書き方となる。

    Clio and the Economics of QWERTY
    Paul A. David
    The American Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (May, 1985), pp. 332-337.

    Within the next few months QWERTY's evolution was virtually completed by Rernington's mechanics. Their many modifications included some finetuning of the keyboard design in the course of which the "R" wound up in the place previously allotted to the period mark "."

あるいは タイプバー連続動作の警戒水準を隣接を避けるところまで 一本間を置いてあればいいってところまで引き下げる判断が 1873年3月以降のこのあたりでなされた ということなのかもしれないし。 TYPE WITE  TYPE WRITER どうなのかな。

ちなみに 隣接タイプバーの連続動作頻度をブラウンコーパスでみた評価では リスクは低下している。

時期など 説明 関係者 BCディ・グラフ・ポイント 総digraph当りパーセント
1872年7月 サイエンティフィック・アメリカン紙取材時 ショールズら 29534 0.817%
1873年2月 デンスモアらレミントン持ち込み機 ショールズら 14994 0.415%
1873年9月 Jenneら特許 9695 0.268%
1874年4月 製品発売機 9695 0.268%
raycy @ wiki - QWERTY配列に至った機械的制約要因の一つとされる頻出連続文字組でのタイプバー隣接忌避は、あったのか。あった、たぶん。

qtqqxmsfpyqtqqxmsfpy2014/06/02 01:15yjgqrcrb, <a href="http://www.pxbfrbckmx.com/">maldwwndvj</a> , [url=http://www.tdvoclfwrf.com/]ovdjdkynks[/url], http://www.hxjudsgprk.com/ maldwwndvj

2014-03-29

masudako「考えうるあらゆる配列のうちでQWERTYが最適だと論証できたとは考えにくい。」 に ついて。

12:22

ただし、Kay (2013c)が実際に数値を使って示しているのは「QWERTY配列のround basketで隣どうしになった文字が英語の文章で続けて現れる頻度が少ないこと」であって、…… 考えうるあらゆる配列のうちでQWERTYが最適だと論証できたとは考えにくい。

QWERTY (2) - macroscope: 2013-10-20 by masudako

QWERTY (2) - macroscope

隣接するタイプバーの連続動作頻度(continuous motion frequency of adjacent typebars )が最少とはいえないかもだが かなり最少に近づいている。

私の雑駁な試算では QWERTYのディッカーソン規則配列よりも 安岡観察アドホック配列のほうが CMFAT が小さくなった。

ディッカーソンと安岡観察
http://blog.goo.ne.jp/raycy/e/f4ffd70ff8eeb12b546d926afa51ea2f

Patent Drawingプロットしたうちでは Sholesの後年特許配列が最少であるが、打ちやすいとはいえまい。

ショールズの1881年には着想されつつあったっぽい1889年申請?特許配列は、隣接タイプバー連続打字機会の低減の点では究極的であろうが、さて、、使い勝手の点では どうか? - 霊賽 - 数理っぽく?

連続動作頻度最小化にこだわった配列だと思われる。


right side inclining middle 右側寄り中央部 Sholes1881ごろには腹案あったか。United States Patent No.568630

Internet Archive Wayback Machine: QWERTY and the rivals - The actuality on - QWERTY history:

アップストライク時代においては 大文字小文字切り替えシフト機構を導入したときを除いて ほぼ一貫して 連続動作頻度は低下傾向にある。

Plots of the frequency the adjacent typebar's sequential motion along time and innovation goes by,

raycy @ wiki - Re:特に1882年8月のキー配列変更は、Sholesの特許を忌避するためのもので、技術的な理由によるものではない。yasuoka (21275)
Reading ”The Truth”: What I have to do is to refine some tables and charts, and translate some pages to English.

試算は 次のように行った。

  1. タイプバーの配列には ディッカーソンの規則性を仮定した。
    • 仮定しなくともよい場合もあるか。要は タイプバスケット上での隣接を見るだけである。
  2. Brown Corpus一セットを打鍵した場合をみる。
    • Mr. Sean Luke(2009にWebより取得)に挙げてあった Brown Corpus一セットあたりの 連続二文字出現頻度(順序あり)。
    • これを er+re のように まとめて順序なしの連続二文字出現頻度とした。

これらにより ブラウンコーパスを一セット打鍵したときの隣接タイプバーが連続動作する頻度が 計算できる。

たとえば typebasketに ABC…順にサークル状にならんでいるとすれば、

>:title>

If the letters of the type-bar are put sequentialy around the type-basket and if like ...VWXYZ23456789ABCD... then

 

 


https://spreadsheets.google.com/pub?key=0AqzxPHll8XJldDFDbFZqMFVzYmlHd293Y1dCYWg0QVE&hl=en&gid=0



adjacent typebars' letter pairs frequency

Reading ”The Truth”: adjacent typebars’ letter pairs froquency

また、全体の どの程度の偏差位置にあるかをみるのに、エクセル乱数を用いて モンテカルロ法で 六万ケース超を ランダムにscatteredしてみた。具体的には どのようにやったか はっきり覚えていない。後で整理。

もう少し精度のよい乱数で 再計算してみるかも。

  • 関わっている部分については エクセル乱数でも結構役に立っている模様。

among many of scattered key layouts ( among many of over sixty thousands of Monte Carlo trials )

Reading ”The Truth”: What I have to do is to refine some tables and charts, and translate some pages to English.

Kay「英語で続けて現われやすい2文字がround basket上で隣どうしになるのを避けた」という説

10:35

Kay(2013c)の説は、Darryl Rehr"QWERTY Revisited"(1997/March) http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.38.pdf で出されており、同認識のStickney特許(1900,および1904ごろ)において QWERTYのfront-strike機へのアプリケーションが提案されている。

Kayはそれを認めながら、「英語で続けて現われやすい2文字がround basket上で隣どうしになるのを避けた」という説をたてる。

QWERTY (2) - macroscope: 2013-10-20 by masudako

QWERTY (2) - macroscope

隣接するタイプバーの連続打鍵頻度を下げるという目標基準設定は Darryl Rehrによってなされた、、

もうひとつの"QWERTY Revisited"(1997/March)において。

In QWERTY Revisited( on ETCetra No.38 / March, 1997/3 ), there are ,

If you've ever had the opportunity to fiddle with a Sholes & Glidden, you may have a feel for how this works. Type keys for two adjacent type bars quickly in succession and they'll clash and jam all day.

If you "Type keys for two adjacent type bars quickly in succession and " then "theyll clash and jam all day." ? - 葉仮名raycy - KliologY

この考えをふまえていたスティックニー

to arrange some of the frequently-operated types at one side of the circle and | raycyの日記 | スラド

front-strike版でのQWERTYの 幾分かのキーとの接続改変実装提案が、Stickneyによって 1900年ごろから いくつかなされた。

アンダーウッドのタイプ並びのままだと あまりに隣接タイプバーの連続動作頻度が高いので 少しでも少なくする試みです。

20140327100808

Reading ”The Truth”: Stickney’s another key=typebar connection exchanger

Copyist! Typewriter for a christmas present, at December 1875.

06:36

クリスマスプレゼント ってだけじゃなかった。

コピーの仕事があったのだ。

copying ペン書きのコピーの仕事が。

それを半額でやるといっている。

copyist

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030272/1875-12-16/ed-1/seq-4/print/image_681x648_from_2829%2C92_to_5877%2C2995/

The sun., December 16, 1875, Image 4

About The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916

Image provided by: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation

Chronicling America - The Library of Congress

2014-03-28

Clephane & Brailey, type-writing machine

05:54

Clephane & Braileyの事務所には type-writing machineが置かれていたようだ。

1872年11月からは実用に供されていたようだ。

Typewriter

Wikipedia contributors. "James O. Clephane." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.

James O. Clephane - Wikipedia

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/search/pages/results/?date1=1867&date2=1875&searchType=advanced&language=&proxdistance=5&state=&rows=20&ortext=&proxtext=&phrasetext=&andtext=clephane+Brailey&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1&sort=date




I'd asked on TYPEWRITERS.yahoo.groups

04:13

http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015387/1893-09-30/ed-1/seq-1/

STORY OF AN INVENTOR

The Man Who Gave to the World

the Typewriter.

------

C. Lathome Sholes,of Milwaukee, and the

Wonderful Work We No Wrought -- He

Drew No Profit from the Fuit of His Unique XXX

----

[Special Millwaukee (Wia.) Letter.

Thickly covered with grimy dust

there recently reposed in the junkroom

of a Milwaukee machinist the remains

of the first successful typewriter ever

built. The machine which has revolutionized commercial correspondence

had lain thus amid ignoble surroundings,

quite forgotten, for over twenty

years, but, like John Brown's body, its

soul was marching on.

"I saved it because the Ivory in the

keys was worth something, and I

thought I could use it over again some

time," said the machinist to the

writer. "If you want to pay me for the

ivory you can have it." A bargain was

immediately struck at $1, and both

parties to the transaction were abundantly

pleased. Four times the size

of the machine on the market todday,

a drayman was hired to bring the relic

from the machinist's, and when a tape

measure was applied to it, it was

found to be two feet across by two and

a half long. It had been larger, for it

was somewhat dismantled.

When in working order there was a

printing carriage that moved across

the top and printing types that were

arranged as they now are in the standard

machines. The keyboard, as is

shown in an accompanying view, was

modeled after that of the piano, there

being a row of white and a row of black

keys, back of which was a third row of

rond brass keys, from which the idea

of te present keyboard was eventually

taken.

Every schoolboy knows, or has ample

opportunity to know, that Elis Hows

invented the sewing machine, and .e

knows, also, If he knows anything,

that the-cotton gin was Invented by

Whitaey. These ames appear in his

text books of history. The names of

Morse and Fulton are inseparably assm

elated with the telegraph and the

steamboat, and ere long the name of

Bell will be fanmiliar to the schoolboy

as connected with the origin of the

telephone. It is doubtfl if there has

been sineo the production of the sew

ing machine any invention so notable

as that of the typewriter, or one d

sisned to so completely penetrate the

business life of the world-the tele

phone, even, not excepted. Away back

in 1?67 the tclentifie American said

. LAtIenW SNOLUS.

editorially that the man who would

invent a seecessful writlag machine

would not only secure a fortune, but

would confer a blessnag on meaknld.

That that journal spoke truer words

then it bay have realised caneot be

doubted when we bear Ih mind that

em a m mametry alom leat year sold

s5,eIsmacimns And how many knew

ewen theams of the inventor of this

wederful machime? It is V. Latham

sates. le died pt his home in il

waukee about three years ago

The story of the typewriter's orig

S-marntt able and tIterestlnr. Al

thoh or years poor health, Mr.

Sholes was a -an of great energy. His

inventive genius possessed him at all

times, and his pid was busy with me

chabeasul problms day and lnight He

had been a printer and as editor, but

at the time the typewriter was In

vented was eolector of the port of

Milwaukee, having been some years

earlier editor of the Milwaukee Sen

tineL He contrived several labor sav

ag devce for use in the publishing

business, principal among which was

a mailing machine, which was quite

generally used untrl impovements

upon it were put on the market The

invemtlen that foreshadowed the type

writer was that of a paging machine

to be used by bookidders and others.

Mr. Sholes was at work pon this

when he was collector, and a Mr.

Samuel Soale, a old acquaitance

and alo a printer, was aterested with

him in it They were trylng to po

daes a machine that would print the

serial umbers of pages pon the

leaves of blank books already bound

and also upon bank notes. They had

their models made at a little machine

sop on Stee street presided over by a

man named kleiasuteber, and this

brlught thd is easteet with Mr.

Asrls GOMden, who was getltng up a

mehiMe to supplant the plow. and

whih he called a "speder" While

r. Glidden was quite closely identi

asd with te iswetidon of the type.

writer, It so happened tOpt his ph

elpal oeatributien to its prodmtion

was te eugetion that such a ma

hims bageotteun up.

  • Wby." aid he, "eaa' you make a

maeiee that will print sttes as well

Mr. al. ad he thought he might

am ast he would ty, eanway.

Wething was den, however, until a

meih aftewed, when a esy of the

ieNthls Ameteem eams to head eona

tasini a dersrlpten of a .asine

rlM rntcid 6 O

American samed John Pratt, la a

reasidentof England. The "pteretyps"

was practically S writing macbins, a

at least embodied the typewriting

ides, and the ord a nl taininr

artiele commented on it editorially

and amid what has already been quoted

regarding the importance that would

attach to the successfu invention di

such a machine.

Gidden showed the paper to Sholes,

and the latter was ispired to begin

active experimects, Soule being also

Induced to help in the endeavor. They

made Klelasteuber s place their sew

denvous, and interested the propriet.r

and his head workman, Matthias

Sehwalbach, in the work. As with

many other inventions, there were

constant disoauragements met with

while the idea was being worked ouat

Varioui principles were tried sad then

liacarded, and the experiments were

found by no means inexpenaive.

It was in Septenber, 167, that a ma

chine was fnally produced that weould

write. The inventor was in high

feather, and letters were at once wri

ten on the machine sad seat to per

sons who had been ogniasant of the

work. So atissed was Mr. Sholes that

he had produced a machine of peas

tical commeretal value that he put the

cumbersome afair on an expeem

wagon and brougyt it to the oees ef

a Milwaukee life insurance eompaty.

"I wouldn't give the thing table

room," maid the president in his usual

gruf though well-meaning way, when

the work of the machine had been

demonstrated. The inventor Was

somewhat cast down, but he lived to

see that very company devote a large

corridor in its building to typewriters,

pereed from this machie whish

had been so heartlessly laughed at

This first typewriter, as will be see

by the illustration, was built of wood

almost entirely, and wans cred enough.

compared with the machines o today.

It was so far satisfactory, however,

that it wrote rapidly and accurately,.

although plainly not yet wlciestly

perfected to be put upon the market

One very noticeable defect was that a

sheet could not be seen until the writ

inl was completed and the plan of

printing through the paper against the

ribbon was bad, necessitating,as it did,

the use of tissue paper entirely.

One of the letters written on the hut

typewriter was sent to James Dens.I

more, Meadville, Pa., and be was as

impressed by the invention that he

asked to become financially intereted

ia Improving IL He was permitted to

join the eaterprise by paying all e

penses up to date and was given a

fourth interest in the machine. H '

did not see the invention until 10.i

He regarded it as valuable only be.

cause it demonstrated the SeablMlity

of machine writing, and he encouraged

Mr. Sholes to perseerre in bringlng it '

to a state of perfection, ofering to pay I

all expenses. A shop started atChi

eago was absadoned after ifteen mme

chines had been made, and Messs

Soule and Glidden drew out of the em

terprise, Mr. Sholes then fitting up a

workshop in a little stone building in

.the milling district of Milwauksee,

where water power from a canal was

available. Thisbildinlg has rinae die,

appeared. Within its diangy walls the

work of perfecting the Iavestin'

progressed, and by dint of work that 1

was wearng on the patience and ea

ergy of the inventor, a maecin that

was considered complete was finally

turned out It was put in the mandsof

a stenographer, and afterward sent to

JamesClephans of Wuhlngton, whome

opilnion was considered valuable. Mr.

Clephane tried the maebine, and It

gave way literally under the test A I

other was set him, ad In thb ear se

o- time several, etach having some im-I

prvement, met a similar fate. For

o.ro Mr. Sholes despaired, but Mr.

Denmore insisted that It was eally

the alvatiom of the taveation, bow. i

in the ,wek spots that woeld IaureI

it ii the market, and laid asiee m toI

necesity ot producing a machine that

was thought to be completely worked

out as to detail, ad the propristoem

looked about for a Ira so sitated as

to make t for the market, sad their

serch resulted n a contreet baing

made with as Ilion (N. Y.) rm.

It was even some time after this that

the typewriter as the general publie

kaew it was put seeesful on the

market, for with eves the aleety with

which the Ilehed meehamles thee

termed out the parts of the melhiae

masy alterations were foen see

ary. Competitors soo spreag up

but, with Sew e~aptiems, the general

pla of Shole machine was adhered

to The method of throwing up the

types, the printinge rlbbeas, the hey

boasd and eves the tram' were Is.

dised, as to speak by the rival

waters, asd seemed to he asespted as

the bestthat caudevie d at

Mr. Sheole had nm t eemmed.

Stricken down with a lung dcalty

and oaisned to his bed, e .pleged

his time Ia making impreemnsts on

his own Inveation, sad ansy et these

were Imeerpreaw ds lathmimessthen

pas o6 lb mrket. ad ar aW l .4

huaanuBss



St. Tammany farmer., September 30, 1893, Image 1

About St. Tammany farmer. (Covington, La.) 1874-current

St. Tammany farmer. (Covington, La.) 1874-current, September 30, 1893, Image 1 ? Chronicling America ? Library of Congress

オペレーターやタイピストからクイックは失せたか? Slow or calmed down operators?

00:09

http://bqaa.blogspot.jp/2014_03_01_archive.html

3/28/2014 

http://bqaa.blogspot.jp/2014_03_28_archive.html

Slowed down sequential movement of adjacent typebars.


If manuscript reading, then the typebasket restriction might be.

If speaking by only their own tangs at the time in ad-live, then it might not.

Tang or mouth might have the restriction of not to speak bad and not to chose like tongue twister  but smooth tongue, though.


The age of people living not to collide typebars.

The era of tamed people avoiding collision of typebars with living to chose keyboard wording ways.

A hundred years of Westerners writing with typewriter of manual operation.

Their keyboard wordings were filtered to go out though the typebaskets not to collide.


3/27/2014

http://bqaa.blogspot.jp/2014_03_27_archive.html

Bukowski could write (faster? maybe or) quicker than typewriter could, and could write on electric and Mac on and on.

Until Bukowski's wild heart tamed calm.

And then, the typewriter kept running for a while.

And later, electric introduced.

Or later, his IIsi brought him to the Mac or PC stage of poet..


Don't hurry, be happy. When you operate typebars sequencialy especialy in adjacent.

Don't hurry, be happy.

Don't too quick

Don't too rapid

And cope with the risks of adjacent typebars’ collisions each other.

The world without rapidity or quickness of series of words' appearance.


Visible and accessible to typebars made user people participate in better performance of typing.

Visible and accessible to typebars made people users possible to participate in better performance of typing.

How to cope with the risks of the typebar collisions.



Slow and calmed down operators in front-striking era. or How to relate well to risks.

Slow and calmed down operators after front-striking era.


As Stickney proposed in his patents of US676208 or US889344, the risk to collide typebars each other was increased in change from up-strike to front-strike.

But the direction and the stream to change from up- to front- did not change and continued.

Without Stickney's patents of these execution.


Why? Visible, yes. But besides..

It was said. To strike keys in rapid one after another , would make collision or lead to the jamming together of typebars.

So why they do not jam so badly in front-strike era?

Because typist became slow.

Slow against quick or harry haste or rapid.

Even pacing.

Even if the typing speed is fast, if the interval of sequential keying is kept enough, typebars do not collide.

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