全体の どの程度の偏差位置にあるかをみるのに、エクセルの乱数を用いて モンテカルロ法で 六万ケース超を ランダムにscatteredしてみた。具体的には どのようにやったか はっきり覚えていない。後で整理。 masudako「考えうるあらゆる配列のうちでQWERTYが最適だと論証できたとは考えにくい。」 に ついて。 - Before QWERTY and After - bqaグループ
どのように導出したかの経過のメモの一部へ 外部からのアクセスが4pvあった。おかげで 研究ノートの断片がみつかった。
また、Sean Lukeのdigraphリストからでなく、彼のLispを参考に 自前でBrownCorpusから抽出して 考慮すべきdigraphの組み合わせを 網羅してみたいと思う。
Yasuoka & Yasuokaはこの説を否定する判断をしている。たとえばEとRは続いて現われやすいが反対側に置かれてはいないのだ。
2013-10-20 by masudako QWERTY (2) - macroscope
本件も 判断の分かれやすいところか。 セールスをプロモートする側からすれば 食指の動くところ？
活字棒の配置を最終的に決めたのは、E. Remington & Sons社の技術者たちで、具体的にはJefferson Moody CloughやWilliam McKendree Jenneだ。
日記 by yasuoka（引用者註:安岡孝一大先生） 2007年05月14日 Dvorak配列の宣伝映画 | yasuokaの日記 | スラド
日記 by yasuoka 2007年05月06日デザイン学者の書くQWERTY配列 | yasuokaの日記 | スラド
そこで David（1985)などでは このRの移動を Sholesのこの時点までの本意ではなく 別の理由をかんぐる書き方となる。
Clio and the Economics of QWERTY
Paul A. David
The American Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings of the Ninety-Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association. (May, 1985), pp. 332-337.
Within the next few months QWERTY's evolution was virtually completed by Rernington's mechanics. Their many modifications included some finetuning of the keyboard design in the course of which the "R" wound up in the place previously allotted to the period mark "."
あるいは タイプバー連続動作の警戒水準を隣接を避けるところまで 一本間を置いてあればいいってところまで引き下げる判断が 1873年3月以降のこのあたりでなされた ということなのかもしれないし。 TYPE WITE TYPE WRITER どうなのかな。
raycy @ wiki - QWERTY配列に至った機械的制約要因の一つとされる頻出連続文字組でのタイプバー隣接忌避は、あったのか。あった、たぶん。
時期など 説明 関係者 BCディ・グラフ・ポイント 総digraph当りパーセント １８７２年７月 サイエンティフィック・アメリカン紙取材時 ショールズら 29534 0.817% １８７３年２月 デンスモアらレミントン持ち込み機 ショールズら 14994 0.415% １８７３年９月 Jenneら特許図 9695 0.268% １８７４年４月 製品発売機 9695 0.268%
QWERTY (2) - macroscope: 2013-10-20 by masudakoQWERTY (2) - macroscope
隣接するタイプバーの連続動作頻度（continuous motion frequency of adjacent typebars ）が最少とはいえないかもだが かなり最少に近づいている。
right side inclining middle 右側寄り中央部 Sholes1881ごろには腹案あったか。United States Patent No.568630
Internet Archive Wayback Machine: QWERTY and the rivals - The actuality on - QWERTY history:
２ ３ ４ ５ ６ ７ ８ ９ ￡ ＆ Ｚ Ｘ Ｐ Ｍ Ｃ Ｈ Ｒ Ｔ Ｎ Ｓ Ｄ Ｇ Ｋ Ｊ Ｂ Ｗ Ｆ Ｌ Ａ Ｅ Ｉ Ｏ Ｕ Ｙ Ｑ Ｖ ： ； ， ！ ？ ‐ ┇ ―
アップストライク時代においては 大文字小文字切り替えシフト機構を導入したときを除いて ほぼ一貫して 連続動作頻度は低下傾向にある。
Plots of the frequency the adjacent typebar's sequential motion along time and innovation goes by,Reading ”The Truth”: What I have to do is to refine some tables and charts, and translate some pages to English.
これらにより ブラウンコーパスを一セット打鍵したときの隣接タイプバーが連続動作する頻度が 計算できる。
たとえば typebasketに ABC…順にサークル状にならんでいるとすれば、
Reading ”The Truth”: adjacent typebars’ letter pairs froquency
among many of scattered key layouts ( among many of over sixty thousands of Monte Carlo trials )Reading ”The Truth”: What I have to do is to refine some tables and charts, and translate some pages to English.
QWERTY (2) - macroscope: 2013-10-20 by masudakoQWERTY (2) - macroscope
隣接するタイプバーの連続打鍵頻度を下げるという目標基準設定は Darryl Rehrによってなされた、、
If you "Type keys for two adjacent type bars quickly in succession and " then "they'll clash and jam all day." ? - 葉仮名raycy - KliologY
If you've ever had the opportunity to fiddle with a Sholes & Glidden, you may have a feel for how this works. Type keys for two adjacent type bars quickly in succession and they'll clash and jam all day.
アンダーウッドのタイプ並びのままだと あまりに隣接タイプバーの連続動作頻度が高いので 少しでも少なくする試みです。
The sun., December 16, 1875, Image 4
About The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916
Image provided by: The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden FoundationChronicling America - The Library of Congress
Clephane & Braileyの事務所には type-writing machineが置かれていたようだ。
TypewriterJames O. Clephane - Wikipedia
- Evening star. (Washington, D.C.), May 16, 1872, Image 4
- type-writing machine with
- National Republican. (Washington City (D.C.)), November 26, 1872, Image 3
- National Republican. (Washington City (D.C.)), December 25, 1872, Image 2
- National Republican. (Washington City (D.C.)), December 31, 1872, Image 2
- Evening star. (Washington, D.C.), February 07, 1873, Image 2
- Evening star. (Washington, D.C.), August 25, 1873, Image 2
STORY OF AN INVENTOR
The Man Who Gave to the World
C. Lathome Sholes,of Milwaukee, and the
Wonderful Work We No Wrought -- He
Drew No Profit from the Fuit of His Unique XXX
[Special Millwaukee (Wia.) Letter.
Thickly covered with grimy dust
there recently reposed in the junkroom
of a Milwaukee machinist the remains
of the first successful typewriter ever
built. The machine which has revolutionized commercial correspondence
had lain thus amid ignoble surroundings,
quite forgotten, for over twenty
years, but, like John Brown's body, its
soul was marching on.
"I saved it because the Ivory in the
keys was worth something, and I
thought I could use it over again some
time," said the machinist to the
writer. "If you want to pay me for the
ivory you can have it." A bargain was
immediately struck at $1, and both
parties to the transaction were abundantly
pleased. Four times the size
of the machine on the market todday,
a drayman was hired to bring the relic
from the machinist's, and when a tape
found to be two feet across by two and
was somewhat dismantled.
When in working order there was a
printing carriage that moved across
the top and printing types that were
arranged as they now are in the standard
machines. The keyboard, as is
shown in an accompanying view, was
modeled after that of the piano, there
being a row of white and a row of black
keys, back of which was a third row of
of te present keyboard was eventually
Every schoolboy knows, or has ample
opportunity to know, that Elis Hows
invented the sewing machine, and .e
knows, also, If he knows anything,
that the-cotton gin was Invented by
Whitaey. These ames appear in his
text books of history. The names of
Morse and Fulton are inseparably assm
elated with the telegraph and the
steamboat, and ere long the name of
Bell will be fanmiliar to the schoolboy
as connected with the origin of the
been sineo the production of the sew
ing machine any invention so notable
as that of the typewriter, or one d
sisned to so completely penetrate the
business life of the world-the tele
phone, even, not excepted. Away back
in 1?67 the tclentifie American said
. LAtIenW SNOLUS.
editorially that the man who would
invent a seecessful writlag machine
would not only secure a fortune, but
would confer a blessnag on meaknld.
That that journal spoke truer words
then it bay have realised caneot be
doubted when we bear Ih mind that
em a m mametry alom leat year sold
s5,eIsmacimns And how many knew
ewen theams of the inventor of this
wederful machime? It is V. Latham
sates. le died pt his home in il
waukee about three years ago
The story of the typewriter's orig
S-marntt able and tIterestlnr. Al
thoh or years poor health, Mr.
Sholes was a -an of great energy. His
inventive genius possessed him at all
times, and his pid was busy with me
chabeasul problms day and lnight He
had been a printer and as editor, but
at the time the typewriter was In
vented was eolector of the port of
Milwaukee, having been some years
earlier editor of the Milwaukee Sen
tineL He contrived several labor sav
ag devce for use in the publishing
business, principal among which was
a mailing machine, which was quite
generally used untrl impovements
upon it were put on the market The
invemtlen that foreshadowed the type
writer was that of a paging machine
to be used by bookidders and others.
Mr. Sholes was at work pon this
when he was collector, and a Mr.
Samuel Soale, a old acquaitance
and alo a printer, was aterested with
him in it They were trylng to po
daes a machine that would print the
serial umbers of pages pon the
leaves of blank books already bound
and also upon bank notes. They had
their models made at a little machine
sop on Stee street presided over by a
man named kleiasuteber, and this
brlught thd is easteet with Mr.
Asrls GOMden, who was getltng up a
mehiMe to supplant the plow. and
whih he called a "speder" While
r. Glidden was quite closely identi
asd with te iswetidon of the type.
elpal oeatributien to its prodmtion
was te eugetion that such a ma
hims bageotteun up.
- Wby." aid he, "eaa' you make a
maeiee that will print sttes as well
Mr. al. ad he thought he might
am ast he would ty, eanway.
Wething was den, however, until a
meih aftewed, when a esy of the
ieNthls Ameteem eams to head eona
tasini a dersrlpten of a .asine
rlM rntcid 6 O
American samed John Pratt, la a
reasidentof England. The "pteretyps"
was practically S writing macbins, a
at least embodied the typewriting
ides, and the ord a nl taininr
artiele commented on it editorially
and amid what has already been quoted
regarding the importance that would
attach to the successfu invention di
such a machine.
Gidden showed the paper to Sholes,
and the latter was ispired to begin
active experimects, Soule being also
Induced to help in the endeavor. They
made Klelasteuber s place their sew
denvous, and interested the propriet.r
and his head workman, Matthias
Sehwalbach, in the work. As with
many other inventions, there were
constant disoauragements met with
while the idea was being worked ouat
Varioui principles were tried sad then
liacarded, and the experiments were
found by no means inexpenaive.
It was in Septenber, 167, that a ma
chine was fnally produced that weould
write. The inventor was in high
feather, and letters were at once wri
ten on the machine sad seat to per
sons who had been ogniasant of the
work. So atissed was Mr. Sholes that
he had produced a machine of peas
tical commeretal value that he put the
cumbersome afair on an expeem
a Milwaukee life insurance eompaty.
"I wouldn't give the thing table
room," maid the president in his usual
gruf though well-meaning way, when
the work of the machine had been
demonstrated. The inventor Was
somewhat cast down, but he lived to
see that very company devote a large
corridor in its building to typewriters,
pereed from this machie whish
had been so heartlessly laughed at
This first typewriter, as will be see
by the illustration, was built of wood
almost entirely, and wans cred enough.
compared with the machines o today.
It was so far satisfactory, however,
that it wrote rapidly and accurately,.
although plainly not yet wlciestly
perfected to be put upon the market
One very noticeable defect was that a
sheet could not be seen until the writ
inl was completed and the plan of
printing through the paper against the
the use of tissue paper entirely.
One of the letters written on the hut
typewriter was sent to James Dens.I
more, Meadville, Pa., and be was as
impressed by the invention that he
asked to become financially intereted
ia Improving IL He was permitted to
join the eaterprise by paying all e
penses up to date and was given a
fourth interest in the machine. H '
did not see the invention until 10.i
He regarded it as valuable only be.
cause it demonstrated the SeablMlity
of machine writing, and he encouraged
Mr. Sholes to perseerre in bringlng it '
to a state of perfection, ofering to pay I
all expenses. A shop started atChi
eago was absadoned after ifteen mme
chines had been made, and Messs
Soule and Glidden drew out of the em
terprise, Mr. Sholes then fitting up a
workshop in a little stone building in
.the milling district of Milwauksee,
where water power from a canal was
available. Thisbildinlg has rinae die,
appeared. Within its diangy walls the
work of perfecting the Iavestin'
progressed, and by dint of work that 1
was wearng on the patience and ea
ergy of the inventor, a maecin that
was considered complete was finally
turned out It was put in the mandsof
a stenographer, and afterward sent to
JamesClephans of Wuhlngton, whome
opilnion was considered valuable. Mr.
Clephane tried the maebine, and It
gave way literally under the test A I
o- time several, etach having some im-I
prvement, met a similar fate. For
o.ro Mr. Sholes despaired, but Mr.
Denmore insisted that It was eally
the alvatiom of the taveation, bow. i
in the ,wek spots that woeld IaureI
it ii the market, and laid asiee m toI
necesity ot producing a machine that
was thought to be completely worked
out as to detail, ad the propristoem
looked about for a Ira so sitated as
to make t for the market, sad their
serch resulted n a contreet baing
made with as Ilion (N. Y.) rm.
It was even some time after this that
the typewriter as the general publie
kaew it was put seeesful on the
market, for with eves the aleety with
which the Ilehed meehamles thee
termed out the parts of the melhiae
masy alterations were foen see
ary. Competitors soo spreag up
but, with Sew e~aptiems, the general
pla of Shole machine was adhered
to The method of throwing up the
types, the printinge rlbbeas, the hey
boasd and eves the tram' were Is.
dised, as to speak by the rival
waters, asd seemed to he asespted as
the bestthat caudevie d at
Mr. Sheole had nm t eemmed.
Stricken down with a lung dcalty
and oaisned to his bed, e .pleged
his time Ia making impreemnsts on
his own Inveation, sad ansy et these
were Imeerpreaw ds lathmimessthen
St. Tammany farmer., September 30, 1893, Image 1
About St. Tammany farmer. (Covington, La.) 1874-currentSt. Tammany farmer. (Covington, La.) 1874-current, September 30, 1893, Image 1 ? Chronicling America ? Library of Congress
Slowed down sequential movement of adjacent typebars.
If manuscript reading, then the typebasket restriction might be.
If speaking by only their own tangs at the time in ad-live, then it might not.
Tang or mouth might have the restriction of not to speak bad and not to chose like tongue twister but smooth tongue, though.
The age of people living not to collide typebars.
The era of tamed people avoiding collision of typebars with living to chose keyboard wording ways.
A hundred years of Westerners writing with typewriter of manual operation.
Their keyboard wordings were filtered to go out though the typebaskets not to collide.
Bukowski could write (faster? maybe or) quicker than typewriter could, and could write on electric and Mac on and on.
Until Bukowski's wild heart tamed calm.
And then, the typewriter kept running for a while.
And later, electric introduced.
Or later, his IIｓｉ brought him to the Mac or PC stage of poet..
Don't hurry, be happy. When you operate typebars sequencialy especialy in adjacent.
Don't hurry, be happy.
Don't too quick
Don't too rapid
And cope with the risks of adjacent typebars’ collisions each other.
The world without rapidity or quickness of series of words' appearance.
Visible and accessible to typebars made user people participate in better performance of typing.
Visible and accessible to typebars made people users possible to participate in better performance of typing.
How to cope with the risks of the typebar collisions.
Slow and calmed down operators in front-striking era. or How to relate well to risks.
Slow and calmed down operators after front-striking era.
As Stickney proposed in his patents of US676208 or US889344, the risk to collide typebars each other was increased in change from up-strike to front-strike.
But the direction and the stream to change from up- to front- did not change and continued.
Without Stickney's patents of these execution.
Why? Visible, yes. But besides..
So why they do not jam so badly in front-strike era?
Because typist became slow.
Slow against quick or harry haste or rapid.
Even if the typing speed is fast, if the interval of sequential keying is kept enough, typebars do not collide.
2010-06-05 QWERTY history on type-baskets of front-strike machines - The actuality on - QWERTY history: